15. Trávníčková, Zuzana: Measures against financing of terrorism: Tuning of rules for creating the European sanction mechanisms



People´s Mujahedeen Organisation of Iran (PMOI) is an Iranian opposition group, based in France. In May 2002, the name of the Organisation appeared on the sanction list of the European Union. The list was established by Common position 2001/931/CFSP on the application of specific measures to combat terrorism and Council regulation (EC) 2580/2001 on specific restrictive measures directed against certain persons and entities with a view to combating terrorism. Both the acts implemented the United Nations Security Council resolution 1373 (2001). According to the restrictions defined in the regulation, financial and economic sources of PMOI were frozen. Three times, the Organisation brought an action against European Commission and asked for the partial annulment of the Council decision (implementing the regulation 2580/2001), that contained the sanctions list. Three times, the Court of First Instance decided the basic rights of the Organization were broken by the listing. PMOI was the first that successfully challenged the European sanctions list. In the PMOI case, the Court defined the range of human rights (right of the defense, statement of reasons, right to effective judicial protection) by adopting decisions concerning the counter-terrorist measures. The first judgment from December 2006 led to the creating of a new body – Council Working Party on implementation of CP 931, that examines information with a view to listing and de-listing subjects on the sanctions list and prepares the regular review of the list, and also other measures, strengthening the rights of listed persons and entities were adopted.